Dry Land Technologies

Soil and Water Conservation :

The following practices are recommended for effective soil and water conservation under dry land conditions:

  • Contour bunding and contour cultivation for shallow and medium deep soils and graded bunding for deep soils.

  • Soil and water conservation through deep ploughing once in three year and every year 2 to 3 harrowings, compartment bundings,  ridges and furrows, tied ridges and furrows, dead furrows, U shape micro catchments water harvesting for dry land orchards and staggered CCT are effective.

  • Integrated water harvesting and runoff recycling through farm ponds and percolation tank.

  • Plantation of   Cenchrus ciliaris, Stylo, Blue panic and Marvel - 8 on contour bunds.

  • Cultivation of crops viz. Horse gram, Black gram, Green gram and moth bean for In-situ soil and water conservation.

  • Buffer strip cropping in intercropping of Peralmillet + Pigeon pea (2:1), Sunflower + Pigeon pea (2:1), Pigeon pea + Cluster bean (1:2), Castor + Cluster bean (1:2) for  vegetable and Castor + Moth bean, Castor + Ridge gourd as a mixed cropping.

  • Mulching (5 t ha-1) with crop residue for soil and water conservation in rabi seasons three weeks after rabi sowing.

  • The In-situ decomposition of crop residue.

  • Vertical mulch at the distance of 4 m with 30 x 60 cm (breadth x depth) size vertical trench during kharif season for rabi cropping.

  • Ridges and furrows one month prior to sowing or at the time of sowing of Peralmillet.

  • Live bunding of leucaena at the distance of 15 m or compartment bunding for soils having slope up to 2 per cent.

  • Pre-sowing and post sowing cultivation practices for different crops for soil moisture conservation.

  • Construction of conservation pit graded bunds for medium deep soil.

  • Broad bed method of sowing.

Agrometeorology: Top

Contingent Crop Planning (mid-season correction)

On-set of Monsoon

Crops to be taken

Second fortnight of June

All kharif crops and recommended intercrops.

First fortnight of July

Peralmillet, Sunflower, Groundnut, Pigeon pea, Setaria, Horse gram, Peralmillet + Horse gram (2:1), Peralmillet + Pigeon pea (2:1), Cluster bean + Pigeon pea (2:1), Cluster bean + Castor (2:1), Castor + Ridge gourd (mixed cropping).

Second fortnight of July

Sunflower, Pigeon pea, Horse gram, Setaria, Castor, Peralmillet (ergot resistant varieties), Peralmillet + Horse gram (2:1), Pearlmillet + Pigeonpea (2:1), Sunflower + Pigeon pea (2:1), Cluster bean + Pigeonpea (2:1), Castor + Ridge gourd (mixed cropping).

First fortnight of August

Sunflower, Pigeon pea, Castor, Horsegram, Sunflower + Pigeonpea (2:1), Castor + Ridge gourd (mixed cropping).

Second fortnight of August

Sunflower, Pigeonpea, Castor, Sunflower + Pigeonpea (2:1).

First fortnight of September

Rabi Sorghum for fodder.

Soil Technology : Top

Improvement of sodic soil by surface application of murum (regolith) @ 15 t ha in the summer months for better germination and higher yield of dryland rabi sorghum.

Crop improvement :



Improved cultivars



Improved : ICTP-8203, Hybrid: Shradha, Saburi


No.148, BDN-2, N-290-21, T-Vishakha, Maroti, BSMR-736


EC-68414, Morden, SS-56, MSFH-17, Bhanu *, P.Vijayraj


M-13, SB-11, ICGS-11, TAG-24, TG-26, K-4-11, JL-24


T-9, TPU-4, TAU-1


S-8, J-781,Phule M-2, Vaibhav


Sina*, Man*




VI-9, Aruna, Girija, Jyoti (DCS-9), DCH-32


Marvel-8, Stylo, Siratro, Pavana, Anjan



Shallow soils: Selection-3, Maulee

Medium deep: M.35-1*, Maulee, Phule Chitra

Deep soils: Phule Yashoda, Swati and CSH-15R, CSH-19R



Bhima*, Tara, Phule Kusuma*, SSF-658*



Vikas, N-59, Chafa, Phule G-12, Vijay, Vishal Digvijay

Horti. Crops Ber

Shallow soils: Umran, Chhuhara, Sannur-6 and Kadaka

* Varieties developed by ZARS, Solapur.

Cropping Systems: Top

For sustainable yields monetary benefits and maintenance of soil health following cropping systems are recommended.

Intercropping for kharif season (Shallow to medium deep soil):

2:1 Proportion


Pearlmillet + Pigeonpea, Sunflower + Pigeonpea,  Pearlmillet + Mothbean

Clusterbean + Pigeonpea,

1:2 Proportion


Castor + Mothbean, Castor + Clusterbean



Castor + Ridge gourd

Strip cropping for Rabi season (Medium to deep soil):

6:3 Proportion


Chickpea + Safflower, Sorghum + Safflower

Crop rotation for deep soil



Blackgram / Greengram / Cowpea-Rabi Sorghum

Sole cropping for shallow soils Kharif


Stylo / Horsegram / Mothbean / Pearlmillet

Year to year crop rotation for medium to deep soil




Sorghum-Chickpea, Sorghum-Safflower,


Farming System :

Farming system research was started at Agril. Research Station, Jeur from the year 1994-95 including all aspects of farming systems existing in the Scarcity Zone of Maharashtra.

Crop Management :

Bombay dry farming method for cultivation of rabi Sorghum. This method includes bunding for soil and water conservation, deep ploughing once in three years and three harrowings for every year, FYM 6.5 t ha, cv. M.35-1, optimum plant population (45 X 22.5 cm) and proper sowing date, seed rate @10 kg ha and 3 hoeings.

Important package of practices for rabi Sorghum was recommended:

Pre-sowing tillage for soil and water conservation :

Post sowing practice :

Drought management for rabi Sorghum :

Integrated Nutrient Management : Top

Fertilizer Management :

The various fertilizer doses for dry land crops were computed and recommended.

Alternate Land Use :

Plant Protection :

IPM Components : Top

Agricultural implements :

Economic Evaluation :

Source: Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Solapur