Solapur District At A Glance



The History of Agriculture in Solapur reveals that famine is of common occurrence from ages due to inadequate and ill distributed rains. Partial and complete failure of both Kharif & Rabi crops result in famine. And as such Solapur District was identified as one of the 72 districts in India's drought prone area.

The district is spread over 1501 thousand hectares with 11 talukas, Solapur occupies 4.83% area & contains 4.10 % population of MaharashtraState. Average rainfall of the district is less than 750 mm. and is always uncertain with bimodal situation. The rains commence in the month of June and dry spell of two to six weeks are observed during July – August. About 40 % rains are received in the month of September. The maximum temperature of the district is 40. 1 0 c , while minimum is 16.1 0 c respectively.

The underline basalt on disintegration and decomposition brought varieties agencies had yielded three kinds of soils viz. Deep black, medium deep & shallow soils. The district is provided with Bhima right bank canal and Neera and Man left bank canals. Similarly Sina and Bhogawati are two seasonal rivers at north side of the district .

Bajra, Sunflower, Redgram, Groundnut , Horsegram, Mothbean & Blackgram are the major rainfed kharif crops of the district and are generally grown on medium deep and shallow soils . While rabi Jowar, Safflower, Gram are main rainfed rabi crops grown generally medium deep and deep soils . Sugarcane, Sunflower, Wheat & summer Groundnut are the major irrigated crops grown in the district. The area under fruit & vegetable crops under irrigated condition is increasing speedily under fruit crops Ber, Pomegranate & Grape has occupied major area, while few hectarage is under Mango, K.lime & Sapota and these fruits of the district have captured the national as well as international market common vegetables under irrigated are Onion, Chilli, Brinjal, Tomato , Okra, Bitter gourd , Cucumber & leafy vegetables. A little area is under flowers & are mainly Merigold, Chrysanthemum, Tuberose and Rose.



THE GENERAL STATISTICS OF THE DISTRICT : SOLAPUR

1

Geographical location

170 .10 N to 18 0 32` N740 42` E to 760 42` E 14, 845 km

2

Geographical Population

32, 31,000

3

Density of population

217 persons per sq. km.

4

Literacy rate

47.06% of total population

5

Sex Ratio

934 female per 1000 male

6

Total No. of Talukas

11

7

Total No. of of Towns

10

8

No. of inhabited villages

1134

9

No. of uninhabited villages

08

10

Total villages

1142

11

Total Gram Panchayats

1027

12

Total No. of Talukas

11


Animal Husbandary

a)

Total No. of animals

18,67,000

b)

Cow & Bullocks

5,74,000

c)

Buffaloes

2,68,000

d)

Total Sheep & Goats

10,07,000


UTILISATION OF LAND IN SOLAPUR DISTRICT

1

Forest Land

32,000 hectares

2

Grass land

37,000 hectares

3

Total cropped area

11, 64,000 hectares

4

Total irrigated area

2, 51,500 hectares

5

Total area under fruit and vegetable crops

29,499 hectares

6

Total area under cereal crop

8,15,200 hectares

7

Total area under pulses

1,10,000 hectares

8

Total area under oilseeds

73,100 hectares

9

Total area under medicinal plant

90 hectares


MAJOR FARMING SYSTEMS/ENTERPRISES

Sr. No. Farming system/enterprise Crop / Enterprise
1

Agro-horticulture system

Udid + Brinjal ; Onion + Bengalgram/Wheat
Soybean + Sugarcane/Rabi Jowar
Bajra + Redgram;
Bajra /Blackgram + Jawar/Gram (R)

2

Agro-forestry

Clusterbean + Castor
Greengram + Jatropa

3

Silvi-pasture

Subhabal + Stylohemata11, 64,000 hectares

4

Low tillage technology and dryland farming system

The main cropping pattern is of kharif cum rabi type, rabi crops like wheat, gram, rabi Jawar, Safflower are taken on fine and deeper soils, kharif crops like Bajra, Urid and Matki are grown on shallow soils.


DESCRIPTION OF AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONE & MAJOR AGRO ECOLOGICAL SITUATIONS

Sr. No. Agro-climatic Zone Characteristics
1

Scarcity Zone

  • Low & erratic rainfall , poor soil with low organic matter and poor moisture holding capacity are constraints lending low yield of crops.

  • Rabi Jawar, Bajra and Wheat are major cereals, among different pulses Tur in kharif and Bengalgram in rabi were grown extensively. Similarly Oilseeds i.e. Sunflower & Safflower aregrown on sizable area.

  • The natural vegetation is of low, scattered shrubs with discontinuous thorny thickets.

  • The general topography is of undulating or rolling plains.

2

Transition Zone

  • Soils are predominantly deep soils having depth more than 90 cm

  • Rainfall is between 600 to 700 mm.

  • Bajra-gram/Safflower, Cowpea for fodder /Udid-rabi sorghum, Sunflower-gram are major cropping systems.

  • Distribution of rains are inadequate erratic and irregular.

  • Rolling topography is the characteristic feature of the transition zone.


AGRO-ECOLOGICAL SITUATION & IT CHARACTERS

Sr. No. Agro ecological situation Characteristics
1

Rainfall Zone-I

  • This zone includes Karmala, Pandharpur, Sangola, Mangalwedha, Madha & Malsiras tahsils.

  • Getting less than 5 cm of rains from February to May, mostly in May, while remaining three months are almost dry.

  • During July receives 10-20 cm of rains.

  • In post mansoon season i.e. October to January, only one month i.e. October receives 5-10 cm of rains, whereas remaining three months get less than 5 cm of rainfall.

  • The amount and the extent of distribution of rains in Zone-I is adequate, erratic and irregular.

  • Soils under this zone is shallow, black with low rainfall & medium elevation, Bajra is mainly grown in kharif and Jawar is grown in Rabi season, other crops like Groundnut, Safflower, Wheat are also grown.

2

Rainfall Zone-IV

  • This zone include Akkalkot, North & South Solapur, Mohol and Barshi tahsil’s.

  • In this zone getting rains of 5 cm in pre-mansoon season mostly in May, where as remaining months are dry.

  • In rainy season only 10-20 cm of rains occurs in June to September, while past rainy season only 5 cm of rains obtain mostly in October and remaining three months are observed to be dry.

  • Soils are shallow black soils did not differ significantly in properties as that of shallow soils in scarcity area.

  • Besides, Cereals, Pulses are equally grown over large area either as sole or intercropping.

  • Amongst the pulses, Tur, Mung and Udid are cultivated over large area, oilseeds also form an important component of cropping system.


SOIL TYPES OF SOLAPUR DISTRICT :


The geographical foundation of soils prevailing in Solapur district is mainly from Deccan trap of volcanic origin viz. “Basalt”. The soil is underlain by partially decomposed basaltic rock locally known as “Murum” which overlies parent material. On account of more or less complete absence of leaching the soil are base saturated the exchangeable calcium being the predominant cation. The free lime content is fairly high (5 to 10 per cent). The soils exhibit varying degree of erosion and truncated profile. Generally soils are clay in texture with predominant montmorillenite clay mineral. Because of the clay minerals, the soils exhibit swelling and shrinkage property on wetting and drying develop cracks after rainy season. The soils are generally low in total nitrogen, low to medium in available phosphorous and high in available potash. The soils in the district can be classified maily on the basis of depth i.e medium deep soils (22.5 to 90 cm) dominate the soil profile with 45 percent of area followed with 25 percent of deep soils of more than 90 cms of depth. About 30 percent of the area is under shallow soils.


The details of the soil types of Solapur District

Sr. No. Soil type Characteristics Area inha.
1

Deep soils

  • Soil depth is more than 90 cms.

  • Water availability period exceeding 130 days.

  • 25% area of the district having deep soils (tahsils : Akklkot, north Solapur and south Solapur)

3,72,000

2

Medium deep soils

  • Soil depth is between 22.5 to 90 cms.

  • Water availability period exceeding between 100-130 days.

  • 45% area of the district having medium deep soils (Tahsils: Mohol, Barshi, Pandharpur, Madha and Mangalwedha).

6,69,600

3

Shallow soils

  • Soil depth is less than 22.5 cms.

  • Water availability period less than 100 days.

  • 30% area of the district having shallow soils (Tahsils: Malsiras, Karmala and Sangola)

4,46,400


AREA, PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF MAJOR CROPS CULTIVATED IN THE SOLAPUR DISTRICT

Sr. No. Crop Area (ha) Production (Qtl) Productivity(Qtl /ha)

A)

Cereals:

1

K. Jawar

500

8500

17.00

2

R. Jawar

6,01,700

44,31,000

6.50

3

Bajra

63,400

7,61,000

12.00

4

Wheat

60,900

5,54,000

9.10

5

Sugarcane

35,400

1,69,92,000

480.00

B)

Oilseeds:

1

K. Sunflower

19,900

1,25,000

6.28

2

Safflower

14,000

23,000

1.65

3

Rabi Sunflower

19,900

1,25,000

6.28

4

Summer Groundnut

3,200

83,000

26.00

5

Soybean

4,900

58,000

11.60

C)

Pulses:

1

Redgram

39,100

2,57,000

6.28

2

Green gram

6,000

50,000

8.25

3

Black gram

9,100

37,000

4.08

4

Chickpea

33,000

1,49,000

4.50

D)

Fruits:

1

Pomegranate

21,433

10,65,600

50

2

Ber

7,461

37,10,000

50

3

Grape

5,231

35,980

272

4

K. lime

3,718

18,56,000

50

5

Mango

2,180

21,700

10

6

Sapota

1,902

95,100

50

7

Tamarind

1,139

11390

10

8

Custard apple

791

7910

10

9

Banana

700

5,417

773

E)

Vegetables:

1

Onion

7,938

9,59,200

120

2

Chilli

2,753

2,20,240

80

3

Brinjal

877

1,75,000

200

4

Tomato

877

1,75,400

200

5

Okra

69

10,350

150

6

Garlic

245

2,455

10

Source: NARP & DSAO,

Solapur reports