Dry land Technologies
Integrated Nutrient Management
Soil and Water Conservation :
The following practices are recommended for effective soil and water conservation under dry land conditions:
Contour bunding and contour cultivation for shallow and medium deep soils and graded bunding for deep soils.
Soil and water conservation through deep ploughing once in three year and every year 2 to 3 harrowings, compartment bundings, ridges and furrows, tied ridges and furrows, dead furrows, U shape micro catchments water harvesting for dry land orchards and staggered CCT are effective.
Integrated water harvesting and runoff recycling through farm ponds and percolation tank.
Plantation of Cenchrus ciliaris, Stylo, Blue panic and Marvel - 8 on contour bunds.
Cultivation of crops viz. Horse gram, Black gram, Green gram and moth bean for In-situ soil and water conservation.
Buffer strip cropping in intercropping of Peralmillet + Pigeon pea (2:1), Sunflower + Pigeon pea (2:1), Pigeon pea + Cluster bean (1:2), Castor + Cluster bean (1:2) for vegetable and Castor + Moth bean, Castor + Ridge gourd as a mixed cropping.
Mulching (5 t ha-1) with crop residue for soil and water conservation in rabi seasons three weeks after rabi sowing.
The In-situ decomposition of crop residue.
Vertical mulch at the distance of 4 m with 30 x 60 cm (breadth x depth) size vertical trench during kharif season for rabi cropping.
Ridges and furrows one month prior to sowing or at the time of sowing of Peralmillet.
Live bunding of leucaena at the distance of 15 m or compartment bunding for soils having slope up to 2 per cent.
Pre-sowing and post sowing cultivation practices for different crops for soil moisture conservation.
Construction of conservation pit graded bunds for medium deep soil.
Broad bed method of sowing.
Rainfall probability analysis for 276 locations in the state of Maharashtra.
Soil moisture adequacy indices for 4 soil depths at 72 locations.
Water availability period for 72 locations in Scarcity Zone of Maharashtra.
Identified meteorological weeks having maximum probability of rainfall.
Dry seeding practice in kharif.
Crop planning for aberrant weather conditions as given below.
Contingent Crop Planning (mid-season correction)
On-set of Monsoon
Crops to be taken
|Second fortnight of June||All kharif crops and recommended intercrops.|
|First fortnight of July||Peralmillet, Sunflower, Groundnut, Pigeon pea, Setaria, Horse gram, Peralmillet + Horse gram (2:1), Peralmillet + Pigeon pea (2:1), Cluster bean + Pigeon pea (2:1), Cluster bean + Castor (2:1), Castor + Ridge gourd (mixed cropping).|
|Second fortnight of July||Sunflower, Pigeon pea, Horse gram, Setaria, Castor, Peralmillet (ergot resistant varieties), Peralmillet + Horse gram (2:1), Pearlmillet + Pigeonpea (2:1), Sunflower + Pigeon pea (2:1), Cluster bean + Pigeonpea (2:1), Castor + Ridge gourd (mixed cropping).|
|First fortnight of August||Sunflower, Pigeon pea, Castor, Horsegram, Sunflower + Pigeonpea (2:1), Castor + Ridge gourd (mixed cropping).|
|Second fortnight of August||Sunflower, Pigeonpea, Castor, Sunflower + Pigeonpea (2:1).|
|First fortnight of September||Rabi Sorghum for fodder.|
Soil Technology: Top
Improvement of sodic soil by surface application of murum (regolith) @ 15 t ha in the summer months for better germination and higher yield of dryland rabi sorghum.
Crop improvement :
Evolved the following crop cultivars and recommended for cultivation in the zone.
|Kharif||Pearlmillet||Improved : ICTP-8203, Hybrid: Shradha, Saburi|
|Pigeonpea||No.148, BDN-2, N-290-21, T-Vishakha, Maroti, BSMR-736|
|Sunflower||EC-68414, Morden, SS-56, MSFH-17, Bhanu *, P.Vijayraj|
|Groundnut||M-13, SB-11, ICGS-11, TAG-24, TG-26, K-4-11, JL-24|
|Blackgram||T-9, TPU-4, TAU-1|
|Greengram||S-8, J-781,Phule M-2, Vaibhav|
|Castor||VI-9, Aruna, Girija, Jyoti (DCS-9), DCH-32|
|Grasses||Marvel-8, Stylo, Siratro, Pavana, Anjan|
Shallow soils: Selection-3, Maulee
Medium deep: M.35-1*, Maulee, Phule Chitra
Deep soils: Phule Yashoda, Swati and CSH-15R, CSH-19R
|Safflower||Bhima*, Tara, Phule Kusuma*, SSF-658*|
|Chickpea||Vikas, N-59, Chafa, Phule G-12, Vijay, Vishal Digvijay|
|Horti. Crops Ber||Shallow soils: Umran, Chhuhara, Sannur-6 and Kadaka|
* Varieties developed by ZARS, Solapur.
Cropping Systems: Top
For sustainable yields monetary benefits and maintenance of soil health following cropping systems are recommended.
|Intercropping for kharif season (Shallow to medium deep soil):|
Pearlmillet + Pigeonpea, Sunflower + Pigeonpea, Pearlmillet + Mothbean
Clusterbean + Pigeonpea,
|1:2 Proportion||Kharif||Castor + Mothbean, Castor + Clusterbean|
|Intercropping||kharif||Castor + Ridge gourd|
|Strip cropping for Rabi season (Medium to deep soil):|
|6:3 Proportion||Rabi||Chickpea + Safflower, Sorghum + Safflower|
|Crop rotation for deep soil|
Blackgram / Greengram / Cowpea-Rabi Sorghum
|Sole cropping for shallow soils Kharif|
|Kharif||Stylo / Horsegram / Mothbean / Pearlmillet|
|Year to year crop rotation for medium to deep soil|
Farming System :
Farming system research was started at Agril. Research Station, Jeur from the year 1994-95 including all aspects of farming systems existing in the Scarcity Zone of Maharashtra.
Crop Management :
Bombay dry farming method for cultivation of rabi Sorghum. This method includes bunding for soil and water conservation, deep ploughing once in three years and three harrowings for every year, FYM 6.5 t ha, cv. M.35-1, optimum plant population (45 X 22.5 cm) and proper sowing date, seed rate @10 kg ha and 3 hoeings.
Important package of practices for rabi Sorghum was recommended:
Pre-sowing tillage for soil and water conservation:
* One ploughing.
* Three harrowings
* Ridges and furrows, Compartment bunding for soil & water conservation.
Post sowing practice:
* Sowing with two bowl ferti seed drill.
* Seed treatment for shoot fly control.
* Application of recommended dose of fertilizer 50:25 kg N:P2O5 ha.
* Use of high yielding, drought tolerant varieties.
* Three hoeings for dust mulching or mulching with crop residue.
Drought management for rabi Sorghum:
* One third reduction in plant population.
* Mulching with crop residue within 21 DAS or increase in number of hoeings.
* Removal of bottom leaves at terminal stress.
* Sprayings of antitransparant (Keolin 8% or Chalk powder 8%).
* Weed control in kharif cropping before 30 days from sowing by mechanical means or by pre-emergence spray of
Atrazin (50% WO ai) for Cereals when soil moisture is at field capacity condition.
* Use of crop residues / grass mulch ( 5 t ha) within 20 days from emergence of rabi Sorghum.
* Recommended crop planning of different kharif and rabi crops according to land use is as under.
Crop planning according to land use capability
|<7.5 cm||Grasses, forestry, dryland horticulture|
|7.5 to 22.5 cm||Grasses, Horsegram, Mothbean, Castor, Pearlmillet + Horsegram (2:1) intercropping, forestry and horticulture|
|22.5 to 45 cm||Sole Pearlmillet, Sunflower, Pigeonpea, Pearlmillet + Pigeonpea and Sunflower + Pigeonpea (2:1) intercropping, Castor, Groundnut|
|45 to 60 cm||Rabi Sorghum, Safflower, Sunflower, Chickpea|
|> 60 cm||Rabi Sorghum, Safflower, Sunflower, Chickpea and double cropping.|
* Recommended improved crop management technology viz. Pre-sowing tillage, sowing time, plant population,
intercultivation for kharif and rabi crops.
* One or two protective irrigations for rabi Sorghum, Safflower, Chickpea at critical growth stages (CGS) is given below.
|Crop||Irrigation at Critical Growth Stages|
|Rabi Sorghum||Pre-mordia stage (30-35 DAS), Boot stage (50-60 DAS)|
|Safflower||Vegetative growth (30-35 DAS), Flowering (50-60 DAS)|
|Chickpea||Branching (30-35 DAS), Pod formation (60-65 DAS)|
|Sunflower||Button stage (30-35 DAS), Seed filling (60-65 DAS)|
Integrated Nutrient Management : Top
The various fertilizer doses for dry land crops were computed and recommended.
* Fertilizer requirement of dryland crops as a basal dose:
Fertilizer dose (kg / ha)
|Legumes (Pigeonpea, Horsegram, Mothbean, Chickpea, Greengram, Blackgram)||12.5||25||-|
|Cereals (Pearlmillet, Rabi Sorghum)||50||25||-|
|Oilseeds (Sunflower, Safflower)||50||25||25|
|Non-traditional Oilseeds (Castor)||25||12.5||-|
|Pearlmillet for Entisols||50||25||25|
* Advance application of 25 kg P2 O5 ha three weeks before sowing of rabi Sorghum.
* Organic recycling for saving of inorganic fertilizers - Leucaena loppings (10 t ha) for pearlmillet and rabi Sorghum crop
residue (5.5 t ha.) + Leucaena loppings (3.7 ton/ ha.) or crop residue (5.5 ton/ ha.) + Urea (55 kg /ha) for rabi
Sorghum is recommended. This is also helpful in improving soil fertility.
* Green manuring of either Cowpea or Blackgram in kharif followed by rabi Sorghum with 25 kg. N / ha by saving 50%
of recommended dose of fertilizer in Vertisols.
* Application of 50 kg P2 O5 + 25 kg. N to Chickpea and 25 kg P2 O5 + 50 kg N / ha. to Safflower-Chickpea year to
* Application of 25 kg. K2O ha. and 20 kg. S ha. along with 50 kg. N + 25 kg. P2 O5 ha. to Sunflower under Sulphur
* Bio-fertilizers (seed treatment).
Azotobactor culture for Pearlmillet, Rabi Sorghum and Safflower @ 25 g/kg. seed.
Rhizobium culture for legume crops @ 25 g / kg. seed.
* Developed low cost production technology (Rs. 1250 / ton) for Vermiculture and Vermicompost on large scale.
There is good response to this technology from the farmers.
Alternate Land Use:
For marginal skeletal soils- Subabul, Neem, Sirus, Anjan tree species.
Cultivation of grasses viz. Cenchrus ciliaris, Pavana, Marvel-8, Blue panic, Stylo on marginal soils.
Intercropping of Ber + Custard Apple and Ber + Stylo under protective irrigation on shallow soils.
Custard Apple + Stylo / Mothbean / Horsegram with protective irrigation on shallow soils.
Pearlmillet + Pigeonpea (2:1) as intercropping is recommended in the first year plantation under agro-horticultural system.
Developed low cost Integrated pest management module for control of pest and diseases in strip cropping of Safflower + Chickpea (3:6).
IPM Components : Top
Seed treatment with Trichoderma @ 5 g / kg seed.
Safflower cv. Bhima and Chickpea cv. Vijay.
Fixing of Pheromone traps and Heli lure 5 Number/ ha.
2 sparys of 5% Neem seed extract with 1 spary of 0.03% Dimethoate in between.
The Trichoderma seed treatment @ 5 g / kg seed is recommended for control of Pigeonpea wilt.
The spraying of Manocozeb @ 0.2% is recommended for control of Alternaria leaf blight of Sunflower.
Soil mulching with Redgram straw @ 5 ton / ha is recommended for control of Charcoal rot of rabi Sorghum.
Soil application of Trichoderma @ 100 g / tree is recommended for control of dieback of Pomegranate.
The leaf and fruit spot disease of Pomegranate in Hastabahar is effectively controlled by spraying of Carbendazim 0.1% at flowering followed by subsequent spraying of 1% Bordeaux mixture, 0.25% Mancozeb, 0.1% Carbendazim at an interval of 15 days on occurrence of disease is recommended.
Spraying of thiamethoxan 0.005% and / or acetamiprid 0.004% one at ETL and second spray at 15 days thereafter for effective control of aphids.
Agricultural implements :
Two bowl ferti-seed drill is developed for placing the seed and fertilizer at proper depth at a time farmers adoption is 60 per cent.
'Shivaji Multipurpose Farming Machine' is developed for various farm operations.
'Jyoti Planter' is recommended for sowing of different dryland crops.
Peg tooth weeder, bicyle wheel hoe are recommended for hoeing.
'V' blade harrow is recommended for preparatory tillage and removing weeds.
Economic Evaluation :
Intercropping system for kharif is the most economical enterprise over conventional sole or mix cropping system.
Application of N @ 50 kg./ha. to dryland crops viz. Pearlmillet, Sunflower, Safflower and Rabi Sorghum increased the prifitability.
Benefit: Cost ratio of improved technology is 2.61 as against 1.78 in local technology.
In Pomegranate the net profit was Rs. 33600/ha.
Source: Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Solapur