Dry land Technologies



Soil Technology

Cropping Systems

Integrated Nutrient Management

IPM Components


Soil and Water Conservation :


The following practices are recommended for effective soil and water conservation under dry land conditions:

Agrometeorology:      Top

Contingent Crop Planning (mid-season correction)

On-set of Monsoon

Crops to be taken

Second fortnight of June All kharif crops and recommended intercrops.
First fortnight of July Peralmillet, Sunflower, Groundnut, Pigeon pea, Setaria, Horse gram, Peralmillet + Horse gram (2:1), Peralmillet + Pigeon pea (2:1), Cluster bean + Pigeon pea (2:1), Cluster bean + Castor (2:1), Castor + Ridge gourd (mixed cropping).
Second fortnight of July Sunflower, Pigeon pea, Horse gram, Setaria, Castor, Peralmillet (ergot resistant varieties), Peralmillet + Horse gram (2:1), Pearlmillet + Pigeonpea (2:1), Sunflower + Pigeon pea (2:1), Cluster bean + Pigeonpea (2:1), Castor + Ridge gourd (mixed cropping).
First fortnight of August Sunflower, Pigeon pea, Castor, Horsegram, Sunflower + Pigeonpea (2:1), Castor + Ridge gourd (mixed cropping).
Second fortnight of August Sunflower, Pigeonpea, Castor, Sunflower + Pigeonpea (2:1).
First fortnight of September Rabi Sorghum for fodder.

Soil Technology:              Top

        Improvement of sodic soil by surface application of murum (regolith) @ 15 t ha in the summer months for better germination and higher yield of dryland rabi sorghum.

Crop improvement :

Evolved the following crop cultivars and recommended for cultivation in the zone.

Season Crop Improved cultivars
Kharif Pearlmillet Improved : ICTP-8203, Hybrid: Shradha, Saburi
Pigeonpea No.148, BDN-2, N-290-21, T-Vishakha, Maroti, BSMR-736
Sunflower EC-68414, Morden, SS-56, MSFH-17, Bhanu *, P.Vijayraj
Groundnut M-13, SB-11, ICGS-11, TAG-24, TG-26, K-4-11, JL-24
Blackgram T-9, TPU-4, TAU-1
Greengram S-8, J-781,Phule M-2, Vaibhav
Horsegram Sina*, Man*
Mothbean MBS-27*
Castor VI-9, Aruna, Girija, Jyoti (DCS-9), DCH-32
Grasses Marvel-8, Stylo, Siratro, Pavana, Anjan



Shallow soils: Selection-3, Maulee

Medium deep: M.35-1*, Maulee, Phule Chitra

Deep soils: Phule Yashoda, Swati and CSH-15R, CSH-19R

  Safflower Bhima*, Tara, Phule Kusuma*, SSF-658*
  Chickpea Vikas, N-59, Chafa, Phule G-12, Vijay, Vishal Digvijay
Horti. Crops Ber Shallow soils: Umran, Chhuhara, Sannur-6 and Kadaka

* Varieties developed by ZARS, Solapur.

Cropping Systems:    Top

        For sustainable yields monetary benefits and maintenance of soil health following cropping systems are recommended.

Intercropping for kharif season (Shallow to medium deep soil):

2:1 Proportion


Pearlmillet + Pigeonpea, Sunflower + Pigeonpea,  Pearlmillet + Mothbean

Clusterbean + Pigeonpea,

1:2 Proportion Kharif Castor + Mothbean, Castor + Clusterbean
Intercropping kharif Castor + Ridge gourd
Strip cropping for Rabi season (Medium to deep soil):
6:3 Proportion Rabi Chickpea + Safflower, Sorghum + Safflower
Crop rotation for deep soil




Blackgram / Greengram / Cowpea-Rabi Sorghum

Sole cropping for shallow soils Kharif
Kharif   Stylo / Horsegram / Mothbean / Pearlmillet
Year to year crop rotation for medium to deep soil
Kharif-Rabi   Pigeonpea-Sorghum



Sorghum-Chickpea, Sorghum-Safflower,


Farming System :

        Farming system research was started at Agril. Research Station, Jeur from the year 1994-95 including all aspects of farming systems existing in the Scarcity Zone of Maharashtra.

Crop Management :

        Bombay dry farming method for cultivation of rabi Sorghum.  This method includes bunding for soil and water conservation, deep  ploughing once in three years and three harrowings for every year, FYM 6.5 t ha, cv. M.35-1, optimum plant population (45 X 22.5 cm) and proper sowing date, seed rate @10 kg ha and 3 hoeings.

Important package of practices for rabi Sorghum was recommended:

 Pre-sowing tillage for soil and water conservation:   

        * One ploughing.

        * Three harrowings

        * Ridges and furrows, Compartment bunding for soil & water conservation.

Post sowing practice:

        * Sowing with two bowl ferti seed drill.

        * Seed treatment for shoot fly control.

        * Application of recommended dose of fertilizer 50:25 kg N:P2O5 ha.

        * Use of high yielding, drought tolerant varieties.

        * Three hoeings for dust mulching or mulching with crop residue.

Drought management for rabi Sorghum:

        * One third reduction in plant population. 

        * Mulching with crop residue within 21 DAS or increase in number of hoeings.

        * Removal of bottom leaves at terminal stress.

        * Sprayings of antitransparant (Keolin 8% or Chalk powder 8%).

        * Weed control in kharif cropping before 30 days from sowing by mechanical means or by pre-emergence spray of

           Atrazin (50% WO ai) for Cereals when soil moisture is at field capacity condition.

        * Use of crop residues / grass mulch ( 5 t ha) within 20 days from emergence of rabi Sorghum.

        * Recommended crop planning of different kharif and rabi crops according to land use is as under.


Crop planning according to land use capability

Soil Depth


<7.5 cm Grasses, forestry, dryland horticulture
7.5 to 22.5 cm Grasses, Horsegram, Mothbean, Castor, Pearlmillet + Horsegram (2:1) intercropping, forestry and horticulture
22.5 to 45 cm Sole Pearlmillet, Sunflower, Pigeonpea, Pearlmillet + Pigeonpea and Sunflower + Pigeonpea (2:1) intercropping, Castor, Groundnut
45 to 60 cm Rabi Sorghum, Safflower, Sunflower, Chickpea
> 60 cm Rabi Sorghum, Safflower, Sunflower, Chickpea and double cropping.


        * Recommended improved crop management technology viz. Pre-sowing tillage, sowing time, plant population,

           intercultivation for kharif and rabi crops.

        * One or two protective irrigations for rabi Sorghum, Safflower, Chickpea at critical growth stages (CGS) is given below.


Crop Irrigation at Critical Growth Stages
Rabi Sorghum Pre-mordia stage (30-35 DAS), Boot stage (50-60 DAS)
Safflower Vegetative growth (30-35 DAS), Flowering (50-60 DAS)
Chickpea Branching (30-35 DAS), Pod formation (60-65 DAS)
Sunflower Button stage (30-35 DAS), Seed filling (60-65 DAS)


Integrated Nutrient Management :                      Top

    Fertilizer Management:-


        The various fertilizer doses for dry land crops were computed and recommended.

* Fertilizer requirement of dryland crops as a basal dose:


Fertilizer dose (kg / ha)

N P2 O5 K2O
Legumes (Pigeonpea, Horsegram, Mothbean, Chickpea, Greengram, Blackgram) 12.5 25 -
Cereals (Pearlmillet, Rabi Sorghum) 50 25 -
Oilseeds (Sunflower, Safflower) 50 25 25
Non-traditional Oilseeds (Castor) 25 12.5 -
Pearlmillet for Entisols 50 25 25

         * Advance application of 25 kg P2 Oha three weeks before sowing of rabi Sorghum.

         * Organic recycling for saving of inorganic fertilizers - Leucaena loppings (10 t ha) for pearlmillet and rabi Sorghum crop

            residue (5.5 t ha.) + Leucaena loppings (3.7 ton/ ha.) or crop residue (5.5 ton/ ha.) + Urea (55 kg /ha) for rabi

            Sorghum is recommended.  This is also helpful in improving soil fertility.

        * Green manuring of either Cowpea or Blackgram in kharif followed by rabi Sorghum with 25 kg. N / ha by saving 50%

           of recommended dose of fertilizer in Vertisols.

        * Application of 50 kg P2 O5 + 25 kg. N to Chickpea and 25 kg P2 O5 + 50 kg N /  ha. to Safflower-Chickpea year to

           year rotation.

        * Application of 25 kg. K2O ha. and 20 kg. S ha. along with 50 kg. N + 25 kg. P2 O5 ha. to Sunflower under Sulphur

           deficient soils.

        * Bio-fertilizers (seed treatment).

Azotobactor culture for Pearlmillet, Rabi Sorghum and Safflower @ 25 g/kg. seed.


Rhizobium culture for legume crops @ 25 g / kg. seed.


        * Developed  low cost production technology (Rs. 1250 / ton) for Vermiculture and Vermicompost on large scale.

           There is good response to this technology from the farmers.

Alternate Land Use:

          Plant Protection:

IPM Components :               Top

Agricultural implements :

Economic Evaluation :


    Back Home Next